Process Mapping 101: From ‘As-Is’ to ‘To-Be’

Process mapping is a powerful technique used to visually represent the steps, actions, and flows involved in a process. It’s like creating a roadmap that helps you navigate from point A to point B with maximum efficiency and effectiveness.

But how do we go from understanding the existing process to envisioning and implementing an improved version?

That’s where transitioning from ‘as-is’ to ‘to-be’ comes into play.

Significance of Process Mapping:

In today’s fast-paced and increasingly competitive business landscape, the significance of process mapping cannot be overstated.

Here’s why:

  • Agility and Adaptability: Process mapping enables organizations to respond quickly to changes in the market, technology, or regulatory environment. By understanding their processes in detail, businesses can adapt and pivot with agility, staying ahead of the curve.
  • Customer-Centricity: In an era where customer experience reigns supreme, process mapping helps businesses align their operations with customer needs and expectations. By optimizing processes to deliver value more efficiently, organizations can enhance customer satisfaction and loyalty.
  • Data-Driven Decision Making: Process mapping provides a foundation for data-driven decision-making. By capturing and analyzing process data, organizations can identify patterns, trends, and opportunities for improvement, guiding strategic decision-making and resource allocation.
  • Digital Transformation: As businesses undergo digital transformation initiatives, process mapping plays a vital role in optimizing digital workflows and integrating new technologies. It helps organizations harness the full potential of digital tools to drive innovation and efficiency.
  • Operational Excellence: Ultimately, process mapping is a cornerstone of operational excellence. In today’s business environment, where margins are tight and competition is fierce, organizations that prioritize efficiency, quality, and continuous improvement are best positioned for success.

By leveraging process mapping techniques effectively, organizations can optimize their operations, drive innovation, and achieve sustainable growth in the long term.

Understanding the as-is process is the first step in the process improvement journey, as it provides a baseline for identifying inefficiencies, bottlenecks, and areas for optimization.

Understanding the ‘As-Is’ State:

To map the as-is process effectively, consider using techniques such as flowcharts, swimlane diagrams, or value stream maps. These visual aids provide a clear depiction of the sequence of activities, roles involved, and any deviations or inefficiencies that may exist.

Here’s a detailed breakdown of what the ‘as-is’ state entails in process mapping:

  • Process Scope Definition: Before mapping out the as-is process , it’s crucial to define the scope of the process being analyzed. This involves clearly outlining the boundaries of the process, including the starting point, ending point, and any subprocesses or dependencies that are relevant.
  • Data Collection: Gathering data is essential for accurately documenting the current state of the process. This may involve observing the process in action, interviewing stakeholders, reviewing documentation, analyzing data and metrics, and gathering feedback from those directly involved in performing the process.
  • Process Mapping Techniques: Once the necessary data has been collected, various process mapping techniques can be employed to visualize the ‘as-is’ state. Common techniques include flowcharts, swimlane diagrams, value stream maps, and process diagrams. The choice of technique depends on the complexity of the process and the level of detail required.
  • Detailing Activities and Steps: The process map should capture each individual activity and step involved in executing the process. This includes both primary activities (those directly contributing to the desired outcome) and secondary activities (supporting tasks, approvals, handoffs, etc.).
  • Identifying Inputs and Outputs: In addition to documenting activities, it’s essential to identify the inputs required to initiate the process and the outputs produced as a result. This helps to understand the flow of information, materials, resources, and other inputs throughout the process.
  • Mapping Decision Points and Dependencies: Decision points are critical junctures in the process where choices must be made or conditions met to proceed to the next step. Mapping out decision points helps to understand the logic and branching of the process flow. Additionally, identifying dependencies between activities ensures that the process map accurately reflects the sequence of operations.
  • Highlighting Variability and Exceptions: Processes are rarely executed exactly the same way every time. Variability and exceptions may arise due to factors such as changing requirements, unexpected events, or individual preferences. It’s important to capture these variations in the ‘as-is’ state to understand their impact on process performance.
  • Documenting Metrics and Performance Indicators: Lastly, the ‘as-is’ state should incorporate relevant metrics and performance indicators to provide quantitative insights into process performance. This may include cycle time, throughput, error rates, resource utilization, and customer satisfaction scores.

The ‘as-is’ state in process mapping provides a comprehensive snapshot of the current state of a process, detailing its components, flows, decision points, and performance metrics. It serves as the foundation for identifying opportunities for improvement and guiding the transition to the desired ‘to-be’ state.

Envisioning the ‘To-Be’ State:

With a thorough understanding of the current state and a list of improvement opportunities in hand, it’s time to envision the ‘to-be’ state.

Creating the to-be process map involves brainstorming, creativity, and a healthy dose of realism.

The to-be process in process mapping represents the desired or future state of a process within an organization. Transitioning from the ‘as-is’ state to the ‘to-be’ state involves envisioning and implementing changes aimed at achieving specific goals and objectives.

Here’s a detailed explanation of what the ‘to-be’ state entails in process mapping:

  • Goal Definition: The first step in defining the to-be process is establishing clear goals and objectives for the process improvement initiative. What specific outcomes are we aiming to achieve? These goals could include reducing cycle time, improving quality, enhancing customer satisfaction, or increasing efficiency.
  • Brainstorming and Ideation: With the goals in mind, stakeholders involved in the process improvement effort engage in brainstorming and ideation sessions to generate ideas for enhancing the process. This involves exploring different approaches, innovations, and best practices that can be applied to achieve the desired outcomes.
  • Process Redesign: Based on the ideas generated during brainstorming sessions, the ‘to-be’ state involves redesigning the process to incorporate improvements and process optimizations. This may include simplifying workflows, eliminating non-value-added activities, resequencing steps, and automating manual tasks.
  • Mapping New Processes: Once the process redesign is complete, the ‘to-be’ state is visualized through updated process maps. New process maps are created to reflect the redesigned workflows, activities, decision points, and interactions. These maps serve as blueprints for implementing the changes and communicating the new process to stakeholders.
  • Technology Integration: In many cases, achieving the ‘to-be’ state involves leveraging technology solutions to streamline operations and enhance efficiency. This may include implementing new software systems, workflow automation tools, collaboration platforms, or data analytics solutions to support the redesigned processes.
  • Training and Change Management: Transitioning to the ‘to-be’ state requires buy-in and support from all stakeholders involved. Comprehensive training programs are developed to ensure that employees understand the new processes, tools, and procedures. Change management strategies are implemented to address resistance to change and foster a culture of continuous improvement.
  • Pilot Testing and Iteration: Before fully implementing the changes, pilot testing is conducted to validate the effectiveness of the ‘to-be’ processes in real-world scenarios. Feedback from pilot tests is used to fine-tune and iterate on the redesigned processes, addressing any unforeseen challenges or issues that arise.
  • Measurement and Monitoring: Once the ‘to-be’ processes are implemented, ongoing measurement and monitoring are essential to ensure that they are achieving the desired outcomes. Key performance indicators (KPIs) are established to track progress, and regular reviews are conducted to identify further opportunities for refinement and process optimization.

To Sum up

BPX experts involves a structured approach, beginning with a thorough understanding of the current process and culminating in the implementation of desired improvements.

Ultimately, Embracing process mapping and the transition from ‘as-is’ to ‘to-be’ states empowers organizations to adapt to changing market dynamics, enhance operational efficiency, and achieve sustainable growth in the long term.


Documenting the ‘as-is’ state provides a comprehensive understanding of the current process, including its inefficiencies, bottlenecks, and areas for improvement. This baseline serves as a reference point for identifying specific opportunities for enhancement and ensuring that the ‘to-be’ state addresses existing challenges effectively. Without a clear understanding of the current state, it’s difficult to develop targeted improvements that align with the organization’s goals and objectives.

Process mapping enables organizations to align their operations with customer needs and expectations by optimizing workflows and eliminating unnecessary steps or delays. By visualizing the customer journey and identifying pain points or areas of friction, businesses can streamline processes to deliver value more efficiently.

Technology plays a crucial role in achieving the desired ‘to-be’ state by enabling automation, streamlining workflows, and enhancing efficiency. Integrating technology into the process mapping journey not only accelerates the implementation of improvements but also ensures scalability and adaptability to future changes in the business environment.

Author Bio


Rupal Agarwal

Chief Strategy Officer
Dr. Rupal’s “Everything is possible” attitude helps achieve the impossible. Dr. Rupal Agarwal has worked with 300+ companies from various sectors, since 2012, to custom-build SOPs, push their limits and improve performance efficiency. Rupal & her team have remarkable success stories of helping companies scale 10X with business process standardization.

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