RTR : Record to Report (R2R)


Record to Report SAP or SAP R2R, also known as account to report, is a financial and accounting management process in which all business transactions (including sales, purchases, payments, etc.) and financial information are accurately collected, processed, analyzed, validated, organized, documented, and presented within the accounting system, i.e., journal entry, the general or nominal ledger, and its sub-ledgers. Thus, the SAP RTR business process essentially consists of all activities related to recording financial transactions, preparing, and computing financial statements, and also adhering to compliance, regulatory and statutory requirements. The record to report process in SAP provides strategic, financial, and operational feedback on organizational performance for relevant stakeholders.

Basic stages in the SAP RTR cycle:

At a basic level, the record to report SAP cycle involves the following stages:

  1. Extract Data: Financial or business data could come from different sources and could be present in multiple formats, sometimes requiring specific extraction tools. Normally, data extraction is done on a quarterly and annual basis.
  2. Collect Data: After the extraction of all relevant business or financial data is completed, it is assimilated into a single system for review. This facilitates easy analysis, creating a snapshot or ringside view of information gathered from different sources.
  3. Validate Data: The extracted and assimilated financial or business data must then be verified to ensure its accuracy and compliance with accounting standards.
  4. Convert data into KPIs: After the data has been authenticated and confirmed as accurate, it is transformed into meaningful key performance indicators (KPIs). These KPIs are used to measure organizational efficiency, productivity, progress, and success.
  5. Information sharing: Finally, the finance and accounting team shares the information in the report with internal and external stakeholders. The report structure can vary based on data complexity, information needs, and grammatical and formatting requirements, and is then used to make key strategic business decisions going forward.

How does the record to report process in SAP work?

The record to report process flow in SAP can be explained through the following core, detailed steps below: 

1) General Ledger Accounting – Master Data Management: The first step is to set up and record and maintain the master data in the SAP system, including the general ledger accounts, cost, and profit centers, as well as other relevant financial organizations, on a management GAAP and statutory accounting basis. 

For this step to be completed, the sub-ledgers also have to be maintained, recorded, and closed in time. Financial transaction documentation includes revenues (by invoices or sales receipts), purchases (in the account payables account), and expenditures (in the accounting register). This step can also consist of accounting tasks at a broader level, such as documenting sales orders, tracking prospective customers, and sales projections and cash flow.

2)Financial Closing: At the end of each financial period (i.e., a month, quarter, or year), a closing process ritual for the SAP RTR module is performed, and this consists of sub-steps like:

  1. Accruals and Deferrals: Adjustments in accounts have to be made to consider revenues or expenses that have been incurred but have not yet been recorded.
  2. Reconciliation: Reconciliations of various types (i.e., bank, intercompany, sub-ledger with the general ledger, etc.) are done to ensure the accuracy and completeness of financial data. 
  3. Allocation and Settlement: Costs and revenues are allocated or settled between different cost centers, profit centers, and business units.
  4. Financial Statement Preparation: Financial statements like the balance sheet, income statement, and cash flow statement, are prepared based on the recorded data. This involves creating and running predefined or customized reports using SAP’s reporting tools.

3) Financial Reporting & Analysis: Once the financial statements are created, they are used for internal and external reporting purposes. The RTR process in SAP has reporting functionality, including the ability to analyze financial data, create real-time interactive dashboards, and perform financial consolidation for various legal entities.

4) Compliance and Consolidation: The SAP RTR module enables compliance with financial regulations and statutory internal and external controls. This includes maintaining an audit record of financial transactions, demarcation of duties, and documentation for internal and external audits. The RTR process in SAP also allows for archiving financial data and managing related documents. Thus, the reporting cycle concludes the formal process of data gathering, assimilation, scrutiny and analysis, and distribution of the results.

The four core steps of SAP RTR can also be visualized through the diagram below:

RTR : Record to Report (R2R)

How will BPX help implement the Record to Report process in SAP?

The record to report process flow in SAP will always differ according to the specific business configuration, industry, organizational requirements, and unique business processes involved. BPX can help organizations expertly customize their SAP implementation journey, and align with their unique business needs, requirements, and compliance responsibilities.

The record to report process flow in SAP can also be analyzed in the context of the following key implementation steps:

1)As-Is Process: In this process, the current state of the organization’s SAP RTR is analyzed, recorded, and documented. This consists of recognizing the existing procedures and workflows within each process. Some typical activities within each process may include:

  • General Ledger: Recording and posting journal entries, maintaining accounts, managing accounting & financial periods, performing reconciliations, and creating trial balances.
  • Accounts Payable: Processing vendor invoices, verifying payment claims and approving payments, managing vendor master data, and reconciling and consolidating vendor accounts.
  • Accounts Receivable: Creating and sending customer invoices, managing customer payments, maintaining customer master data, and reconciling and consolidating customer accounts.
  • Fixed Assets: Recording asset acquisitions and disposals, calculating depreciation and asset reconciliation, and maintaining asset master data records.
  • Financial Reporting: Preparing financial statements, generating reports for internal and external stakeholders, and complying with statutory regulatory requirements.

2)Business Blueprint (Fit-Gap & To-Be):

The business blueprint phase involves defining the future process framework of the SAP RTR cycle based on the organization’s requirements and SAP configuration and capabilities. It includes two main activities:

  • Fit-Gap Analysis: Identifying the gaps between the current ‘As-Is’ state and the desired future ‘To-Be’ state in terms of processes, functionalities, and system capabilities. This analysis helps determine the extent of customization or configuration needed in the SAP R2R system.
  • To-Be Process Definition: Defining the target processes and workflows in SAP based on the organization’s specific requirements. This includes documenting the changes and enhancements required to optimize the R2R cycle using the various functionalities of the SAP RTR business process.

3) Master Data Migration/ Item Master Configuration:

  • During the master data migration phase, existing master data from the organization’s legacy systems are cleansed, structured, transformed, and loaded into the SAP system. 
  • Item Master Configuration consists of configuring the item master data relevant to the SAP RTR module, such as general ledger accounts, cost centers, profit centers, vendors, customers, and fixed assets.

4)System Configuration / Realization:

In this phase, the SAP RTR system is configured based on the defined ‘To-Be’ processes and requirements. The activities here include:

  • Customizing SAP: Configuring the system settings, defining the organizational structure, setting up validation rules and guidelines, defining document types, and establishing integration points with SAP R2R.
  • Custom Development: If required, custom programs or functionalities are developed to address specific business requirements and specifications that cannot be achieved through standard SAP configurations.
  • Data Integration: Setting up data interfaces to integrate the RTR process in SAP with other systems, such as extracting data from external sources or transferring data to external reporting tools.

5)UAT (User Acceptance Testing):

User Acceptance Testing involves the validation of the configured SAP system and processes against the organization’s specific needs. Key activities in this phase include:

  • Test Scenario Preparation: Defining test scenarios and scripts based on the ‘To-Be’ processes.
  • Test Execution: Conduct end-to-end testing of the R2R process in SAP, including data entry, processing, reporting, and integration with any other SAP RTR business process.
  • Issue Identification and Resolution: Identifying and resolving any functional or technical issues which may crop up during testing.

6)Go-Live Preparation (update as per feedback during UAT):

Based on the feedback and findings from UAT, necessary updates and customization are made to the system configuration framework and processes. The Go-Live Preparation phase includes activities such as:

  • Issue Resolution: Tackling and solving any unresolved issues identified during UAT.
  • Data Migration: Performing the final data migration to ensure that the SAP system contains the most up-to-date, relevant information.
  • User Training: Providing training to end-users on the updated RTR process in SAP.
  • Documentation: Updating the SOPs, process documentation, user manuals, and training materials as per the finalized configuration.


The Go-Live phase involves the actual deployment of the SAP RTR module for live operations. Key activities include:

  • System Activation: Ensuring that the SAP system is accessible to end-users and migrating from the earlier legacy system to the record to report SAP system for day-to-day operations.
  • Initial Balancing: Verifying the opening balances/accounts and reconciling them with the legacy system.
  • Parallel Run: Run the RTR process in SAP and the legacy system according to a specific time frame to ensure data integrity, consistency, and accuracy.

8)After Go-Live Support:

Once the SAP system goes live, the After Go-Live Support phase commences. This stage involves the provision of continuous, ongoing support to end-users and addressing any post-implementation issues, bottlenecks, and challenges faced. This includes:

  • Help Desk Support: Assisting end-users with their day-to-day system queries, troubleshooting issues, and guiding them in using the SAP system effectively.
  • Issue Resolution: Resolving any functional or technical issues that may arise after the Go-Live.
  • Continuous Improvement: Identifying opportunities for process optimization, and the SAP system enhancements, or additional training to improve the efficiency and effectiveness of the record to report process flow in SAP.

The record to report SAP process flows may differ depending on the organization’s configuration, specific market and business requirements, and the processes involved. Thus, organizations often look to tailor their SAP implementation journey to align with their unique needs and compliance requirements.

What BPX is all about – a brief background:

Logistics Execution (LE) - How will BPX help Implement

Headquartered in Pune India, Business Process Experts (BPX) is one of India’s premier process management consultants, focused on delivering customized solutions to businesses looking to streamline and optimize their record to report processes in SAP. BPX was established more than a decade back in 2012, and since then, it has not looked back. The company has quickly grown to become a trailblazer in the SAP financial and accounting solutions space. BPX currently provides innovative SAP process frameworks for diverse industries and sectors, like engineering, automobiles, banks, finance, insurance, chemicals, garments and apparel, retail, manufacturing, hospitality, labs, pharmaceuticals, mining, food processing, ITeS, and others.

Helmed by an experienced team of seasoned finance and management professionals and SAP process consultants, BPX and illustrious sister organizations like YRC have continued to be strategic and transformational partners for top-rung clients for several years running now. As your reliable SAP RTR business process consultant, BPX will follow the industry’s best practices to ensure a successful SAP R2R implementation for your business, in keeping with your specific record to report SAP requirements, configuration, and compliance obligations.

If you are an ambitious business owner or leader looking to successfully implement and maintain the record to report process in SAP, look no further, and connect with BPX now. We will first understand your exact business needs and strategic vision, and then suitably customize your transformation roadmap, helping you to harness the advantages of SAP R2R, maximize your true business potential, scale up and grow exponentially and firmly entrench yourself on the road to success!


Record to report (R2R), also referred to as Account to Report, is a financial and accounting management process that consists of extracting, collecting, processing, validating, and presenting accurate business data, which could be financial, accounts or business-related in nature. Thus, the record to report process in SAP provides strategic, financial, accounting, and operational feedback and direction on the organizational and business performance to inform the management and other internal and external stakeholders.

The three stages in the R2R life cycle are:

  1. Data Extraction: in multiple formats from a variety of sources, requiring specialized extraction tools. Normally, data extraction is done quarterly or annually.
  2. Data Collection: After data is extracted, it is combined and assimilated in a single platform for review, and easy analysis. 

3. Data Validation: The extracted and collected financial data must then be checked and validated to ensure its accuracy and compliance with accounting requirements.

R2R, O2C, and P2P are similar processes but have different objectives and process drivers. While record to report helps to extract, collect, and validate data for accounting compliance needs and to make strategic financial decisions, the order to cash process is used to manage sales orders from customers. The goal of procure to pay, on the other hand, is to source and procure goods and services from suppliers. Thus, while R2R is driven primarily by the financial and account teams, O2C is driven by customers, sales teams, fulfillment, and shipping teams, and also the financial and accounting teams. In comparison, P2P is driven by the procurement teams who manage the organization’s vendors and suppliers.

The main advantages or benefits of the R2R (Record to Report) process is as follows:

  1. Financial visibility, compliance, and governance
  2. Strategic planning and decision making
  3. Efficient tax management
  4. Automated processes free resource time, improve accuracy, and lower costs
  5. Data integrity and accuracy
  6. Overall cost savings 
  7. Enhanced reporting and analytics
  8. Integration, and scalability through standardized processes
  9. Efficiency and transparency in the audit trail

The Record to Report process in SAP, also known as Account to Report, is in simple terms, a general ledger process. This consists of general ledger maintenance, right from the recording of financial transactions to the preparation and reporting of the company’s consolidated financial results and accounts.

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